You may enter Honduras without having shots and health documents unless you are coming from certain countries. Yellow fever vaccinations are required for travelers from countries where yellow fever is common. Contact the Honduras embassy in your country of origin to find out the requirements prior to traveling.
Mosquitos survive in the mild temperatures year around on Roatan. Mosquito borne illnesses are more prevalent during the wet season than during the drier, hotter months. Malaria and dengue are both present in Honduras. Preventative measures include wearing long sleeves and pants, sleeping under mosquito netting, using mosquito spray, and avoiding being outdoors during dawn and dusk hours.
Aids is spreading on Roatan due to the influx of visitors, immigrants, and due to people engaging in immoral lifestyles.
Coxen Hole has a government hospital which is underfunded and in need of improvements. It also has a private clinic called Wood's Clinic which is a better facility.
Anthony's Key Resort has a decompression chamber and medical expertise for dealing with scuba divers having the bends.
Many people go to La Ceiba on the Honduran mainland for treatment if the personnel and facilities are not available on Roatan.
Honduras has a number of medical missions supported by donors in the United States.
Drinking water - only drink bottled water. A company called Sun provides safe bottled water which is purified by reverse osmosis and is widely available on the island in restaurants and stores.